ANSI-BICSI 002-2014

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ANSI/BICSI 002-2014 Data Center Design and Implementation Best Practices Committee Approval: November 2014 First Published: December 2014 BICSI International Standards BICSI international standards contain information deemed to be of technical value to the industry and are published at the request of the originating committee. The BICSI International Standards Program subjects all of their draft standards to a rigorous public review and comment resolution process, which is a part of the full development and approval process for any BICSI international standard. The BICSI International Standards Program reviews its standards at regular intervals. By the end of the fifth year after a standard’s publication, the standard will be reaffirmed, rescinded, or revised according to the submitted updates and comments from all interested parties. Suggestions for revision should be directed to the BICSI International Standards Program, care of BICSI. Copyright This BICSI document is a standard and is copyright protected. Except as permitted under the applicable laws of the user's country, neither this BICSI standard nor any extract from it may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from BICSI being secured. Requests for permission to reproduce this document should be addressed to BICSI. Reproduction may be subject to royalty payments or a licensing agreement. Violators may be prosecuted. Published by: BICSI 8610 Hidden River Parkway Tampa, FL 33637-1000 USA All rights reserved Printed in U.S.A. i ANSI/BICSI 002-2014 Notice of Disclaimer and Limitation of Liability BICSI standards and publications are designed to serve the public interest by offering information communication and technology systems design guidelines and best practices. Existence of such standards and publications shall not in any respect preclude any member or nonmember of BICSI from manufacturing or selling products not conforming to such standards and publications, nor shall the existence of such standards and publications preclude their voluntary use, whether the standard is to be used either domestically or internationally. By publication of this standard, BICSI takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights or copyrights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. Additionally, BICSI does not assume any liability to any patent owner, nor does it assume any obligation whatever to parties adopting the standard or publication. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of any such patent rights or copyrights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility. This standard does not purport to address all safety issues or applicable regulatory requirements associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to review any existing codes and other regulations recognized by the national, regional, local, and other recognized authorities having jurisdiction (AHJ) in conjunction with the use of this standard. Where differences occur, those items listed within the codes or regulations of the AHJ supersede any requirement or recommendation of this standard. All warranties, express or implied, are disclaimed, including without limitation, any and all warranties concerning the accuracy of the contents, its fitness or appropriateness for a particular purpose or use, its merchantability and its non-infringement of any third party’s intellectual property rights. BICSI expressly disclaims any and all responsibilities for the accuracy of the contents and makes no representations or warranties regarding the content’s compliance with any applicable statute, rule, or regulation. BICSI shall not be liable for any and all damages, direct or indirect, arising from or relating to any use of the contents contained herein, including without limitation any and all indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages (including damages for loss of business, loss of profits, litigation, or the like), whether based upon breach of contract, breach of warranty, tort (including negligence), product liability or otherwise, even if advised of the possibility of such damages. The foregoing negation of damages is a fundamental element of the use of the contents hereof, and these contents would not be published by BICSI without such limitations. ii Data Center Design and Implementation Best Practices TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE .................................................................................................................. xxvii 1 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 1 1.2 Purpose ............................................................................................................................................................ 1 1.2.1 Users Within IT ........................................................................................................................................... 1 1.2.2 Users Within Facilities Group ..................................................................................................................... 1 1.2.3 Staff Outside IT and Facilities Groups ........................................................................................................ 2 1.3 Categories of Criteria ..................................................................................................................................... 2 2 Scope ........................................................................................................................... 2 3 Required Standards and Documents ............................................................................ 3 4 Definitions, Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Units of Measurement ............................ 7 4.1 Definitions ........................................................................................................................................................ 7 4.2 Acronyms and Abbreviations ...................................................................................................................... 25 4.3 Units of Measurement................................................................................................................................... 27 5 Site Selection ................................................................................................................ 29 5.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 29 5.2 Site Evaluation .............................................................................................................................................. 29 5.2.1 General Requirements ............................................................................................................................... 29 5.2.2 General Recommendations ....................................................................................................................... 29 5.2.3 Cost Evaluation Recommendations........................................................................................................... 29 5.2.4 Existing Facilities Requirements ............................................................................................................... 30 5.3 Natural Hazards ............................................................................................................................................ 30 5.3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 30 5.3.2 General Requirements ............................................................................................................................... 30 5.3.3 Seismic Activity ........................................................................................................................................ 30 5.3.4 Volcanic Activity ...................................................................................................................................... 32 5.3.5 Wildfire ..................................................................................................................................................... 32 5.3.6 Flood Plains ............................................................................................................................................... 33 5.3.7 Wind .......................................................................................................................................................... 33 5.4 Natural Environment.................................................................................................................................... 34 5.4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 34 5.4.2 Ground Stability ........................................................................................................................................ 34 5.4.3 Groundwater .............................................................................................................................................. 35 5.4.4 Lightning ................................................................................................................................................... 36 5.4.5 Air Quality ................................................................................................................................................ 36 5.4.6 Noise ......................................................................................................................................................... 37 5.4.7 Other Topography and Natural Environment Recommendations ............................................................. 37 5.5 Man-Made Hazards ...................................................................................................................................... 37 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 37 5.5.1 Recommended Separation Distances ........................................................................................................ 37 5.5.2 5.5.3 Other Recommendations ........................................................................................................................... 37 iii ANSI/BICSI 002-2014 5.6 5.6.1 5.6.2 5.6.3 5.6.4 5.6.5 5.7 5.7.1 5.7.2 5.7.3 5.7.4 5.7.5 5.8 5.8.1 5.8.2 5.8.3 5.8.4 5.8.5 5.8.6 5.8.7 5.8.8 6 6.1 6.1.1 6.1.2 6.2 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.3 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.4 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 6.4.5 6.4.6 6.4.7 6.4.8 6.4.9 6.4.10 6.4.11 6.4.12 6.5 6.5.1 6.5.2 6.5.3 Site Access and Location .............................................................................................................................. 39 Public Road Access Recommendations .................................................................................................... 39 Adjacent Property ..................................................................................................................................... 39 Proximity to Existing or Redundant Data Center ...................................................................................... 39 Security and Emergency Services ............................................................................................................. 40 Proximity to Skilled Labor ........................................................................................................................ 40 Utility Services .............................................................................................................................................. 40 Power and Electrical Service .................................................................................................................... 40 Communications ....................................................................................................................................... 43 Water Service ............................................................................................................................................ 44 Sanitary Sewer .......................................................................................................................................... 46 Natural Gas and Other Fuels ..................................................................................................................... 46 Regulations (Local, Regional, Country) ...................................................................................................... 47 Air Quality Requirements ......................................................................................................................... 47 Noise Requirements .................................................................................................................................. 47 Towers and Tall Structures Requirements ................................................................................................ 47 Fuel Tanks Requirements .......................................................................................................................... 47 Generator Requirements ........................................................................................................................... 47 Site Access and Required Parking ............................................................................................................ 48 Setbacks and Sight Lines .......................................................................................................................... 48 Environmental Assessment ....................................................................................................................... 48 Space Planning ............................................................................................................. 49 Overall Facility Capacity ............................................................................................................................. 49 General ...................................................................................................................................................... 49 Module and Modular Design .................................................................................................................... 49 Power Systems ............................................................................................................................................... 50 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 50 Electric Utility Service Feeds.................................................................................................................... 55 Generator Power ....................................................................................................................................... 56 Cooling Capacity ........................................................................................................................................... 57 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 57 Recommendations ..................................................................................................................................... 57 Additional Information ............................................................................................................................. 59 Data Center Supporting Spaces ................................................................................................................... 59 Adjacencies of Functional Spaces ............................................................................................................. 59 Security ..................................................................................................................................................... 61 Telecommunications Entrance Room ....................................................................................................... 62 Command Center ...................................................................................................................................... 63 Helpdesk ................................................................................................................................................... 63 Print ........................................................................................................................................................... 63 Loading Dock ............................................................................................................................................ 64 Storage ...................................................................................................................................................... 64 Engineering Offices .................................................................................................................................. 65 Administrative ........................................................................................................................................... 65 Environmental Design ............................................................................................................................... 65 Waste/Recycle ........................................................................................................................................... 65 Placement of Equipment When Using Access Floors ................................................................................ 65 Cooling ...................................................................................................................................................... 66 Power Distribution .................................................................................................................................... 67 Fire Protection Systems ............................................................................................................................ 67 iv Data Center Design and Implementation Best Practices 6.6 6.6.1 6.6.2 6.6.3 6.6.4 6.6.5 6.6.6 6.6.7 6.7 6.7.1 6.7.2 6.7.3 6.8 6.8.1 7 7.1 7.1.1 7.1.2 7.1.3 7.2 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.3 7.2.4 7.2.5 7.2.6 7.2.7 7.2.8 7.2.9 7.2.10 7.2.11 7.3 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 7.3.4 7.3.5 7.3.6 7.4 7.4.1 7.4.2 7.4.3 7.4.4 7.4.5 7.4.6 7.4.7 7.4.8 7.4.9 7.4.10 7.4.11 7.4.12 7.4.13 7.4.14 Information Technology Equipment Placement in a Computer Room With an Access Floor .............. 67 Telecommunications Spaces ..................................................................................................................... 67 Racks, Frames, and Equipment ................................................................................................................. 68 Aisles ......................................................................................................................................................... 71 Power and Telecommunications Cable Distribution ................................................................................. 75 Airflow Circulation and Equipment Placement Coordination................................................................... 76 Information Technology (IT) Equipment Adjacencies ............................................................................. 76 Access Floor Grid Layout and Reference Point ........................................................................................ 76 Design For Efficiency .................................................................................................................................... 77 Holistic Energy Efficient Data Center Design .......................................................................................... 77 Data Center Efficiency Metrics ................................................................................................................. 77 Data Center Energy Saving Design Opportunities .................................................................................... 78 Network Architecture ................................................................................................................................... 79 Considerations ........................................................................................................................................... 79 Architectural ................................................................................................................. 81 Facilities Planning ......................................................................................................................................... 81 General Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 81 Site Selection ............................................................................................................................................. 81 Location Within a Building ....................................................................................................................... 82 General Design Concepts ............................................................................................................................. 82 Levels of Reliability .................................................................................................................................. 82 Facility Purpose ......................................................................................................................................... 82 Multiuser Versus Single User Groups ....................................................................................................... 83 Equipment Change Cycle .......................................................................................................................... 83 Occupied Versus Unoccupied Data Centers.............................................................................................. 83 Data Center Location Within Building ..................................................................................................... 83 Type of Building ....................................................................................................................................... 84 Multitenant Buildings ................................................................................................................................ 84 24/7 Operation Of Data Center ................................................................................................................. 84 Temperature And Relative Humidity Control ........................................................................................... 84 Materials.................................................................................................................................................... 84 General Paths of Access ................................................................................................................................ 85 General Access .......................................................................................................................................... 85 Data Center Access ................................................................................................................................... 85 Equipment Access ..................................................................................................................................... 85 Telecommunications Access Provider Entry Into Computer Rooms ........................................................ 85 Vendor Access .......................................................................................................................................... 86 Support Equipment Service Access .......................................................................................................... 86 Planning Detail .............................................................................................................................................. 86 Entry .......................................................................................................................................................... 86 Command center and Personnel Areas ...................................................................................................... 86 Printer Room ............................................................................................................................................. 86 Media Storage Room ................................................................................................................................. 86 Restrooms and Break Rooms .................................................................................................................... 87 Computer Room ........................................................................................................................................ 87 Entrance Rooms ........................................................................................................................................ 87 Mechanical Equipment Space ................................................................................................................... 87 Electrical Room and UPS Room ............................................................................................................... 88 Battery Room ............................................................................................................................................ 88 Fire Suppression Room ............................................................................................................................. 88 Circulation ................................................................................................................................................. 89 Equipment Staging and Storage ................................................................................................................ 89 Equipment Repair Room ........................................................................................................................... 89 v ANSI/BICSI 002-2014 7.5 7.5.1 7.5.2 7.5.3 7.5.4 7.5.5 7.5.6 7.5.7 7.5.8 7.5.9 7.5.10 7.5.11 7.5.12 7.5.13 7.5.14 8 8.1 8.1.1 8.1.2 8.2 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.3 8.3.1 8.3.2 8.3.3 8.3.4 8.3.5 8.3.6 8.3.7 9 9.1 9.1.1 9.1.2 9.1.3 9.1.4 9.1.5 9.1.6 9.2 9.2.1 9.2.2 9.2.3 9.2.4 9.3 9.3.1 9.3.2 9.3.3 9.3.4 9.3.5 9.3.6 9.3.7 9.3.8 9.3.9 Construction Components ........................................................................................................................... 89 Data Center Preparation ............................................................................................................................ 89 Floor Slab .................................................................................................................................................. 89 Computer Room Envelope Wall Construction .......................................................................................... 90 Nonrated Partitions ................................................................................................................................... 90 Vapor/Moisture Seal ................................................................................................................................. 90 Door and Glazed Openings ....................................................................................................................... 90 Fire-Rated Construction ............................................................................................................................ 91 Access Control Systems ............................................................................................................................ 91 Airborne Particles ..................................................................................................................................... 92 Access Flooring System ............................................................................................................................ 92 Ceilings ..................................................................................................................................................... 94 Equipment Bracing System ....................................................................................................................... 95 Computer Room Finishes .......................................................................................................................... 95 Roof Systems ............................................................................................................................................ 95 Structural ...................................................................................................................... 97 Building Code Compliance and Coordination ........................................................................................... 97 Requirements ............................................................................................................................................ 97 Additional Information ............................................................................................................................. 97 Impact of Site Location on Structural Loading ......................................................................................... 97 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 97 Recommendations ..................................................................................................................................... 97 Structural Concerns Specific to Data Center Design ................................................................................. 97 Floor Load ................................................................................................................................................. 97 Raised Access Floors ................................................................................................................................ 98 Mission Critical Equipment ...................................................................................................................... 98 Wind .......................................................................................................................................................... 99 Earthquake ................................................................................................................................................ 99 Blast and Terrorist Attack ....................................................................................................................... 100 Ice Shard Impact ..................................................................................................................................... 100 Electrical Systems ...................................................................................................... 101 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................... 101 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 101 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................... 101 Availability and Uptime .......................................................................................................................... 102 Redundancy............................................................................................................................................. 102 Capacity Versus Utilization Efficiency ................................................................................................... 103 Electrical Class Ratings .......................................................................................................................... 104 Utility Service .............................................................................................................................................. 117 Utility Service Planning .......................................................................................................................... 117 Low-Voltage Utility Services ................................................................................................................. 118 Medium-Voltage and High-Voltage Utility Services .............................................................................. 118 Protective Relaying ................................................................................................................................. 120 Distribution ................................................................................................................................................. 120 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................... 120 UPS Rectifier or Motor Inputs ................................................................................................................ 120 Static Switch Bypass Inputs .................................................................................................................... 120 UPS System Bypass ................................................................................................................................ 120 Power Strips ............................................................................................................................................ 121 Input Source Transfer .............................................................................................................................. 121 Generator Controls and Paralleling ......................................................................................................... 123 Unit Substations ...................................................................................................................................... 123 UPS System ............................................................................................................................................ 124 vi Data Center Design and Implementation Best Practices 9.3.10 UPS Output Distribution ......................................................................................................................... 134 9.3.11 Power Distribution Units (PDUs)............................................................................................................ 135 9.3.12 Automatic Static Transfer Switches ........................................................................................................ 137 9.3.13 Direct Current (DC) Power Systems ....................................................................................................... 139 9.3.14 Computer Room Equipment Power Distribution .................................................................................... 142 9.3.15 Emergency Power Off (EPO) Systems ................................................................................................... 154 9.4 Mechanical Equipment Support ................................................................................................................ 156 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 156 9.4.1 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................... 158 9.4.2 9.4.3 Recommendations ................................................................................................................................... 158 Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) Systems ......................................................................................... 159 9.5 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 159 9.5.1 Sizing and Application ............................................................................................................................ 160 9.5.2 9.5.3 Technologies ........................................................................................................................................... 162 Paralleling and Controls .......................................................................................................................... 164 9.5.4 Batteries and Stored Energy Systems ...................................................................................................... 165 9.5.5 Standby and Emergency Power Systems .................................................................................................. 170 9.6 9.6.1 Sizing and Application ............................................................................................................................ 170 Starting Systems ...................................................................................................................................... 172 9.6.2 Fuel System ............................................................................................................................................. 172 9.6.3 Fuel Tank and Piping .............................................................................................................................. 173 9.6.4 9.6.5 Exhaust System ....................................................................................................................................... 173 Cooling System ....................................................................................................................................... 173 9.6.6 Mounting ................................................................................................................................................. 174 9.6.7 Automation and Control ............................................................................................................................ 174 9.7 9.7.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 174 Monitoring .............................................................................................................................................. 174 9.7.2 Control .................................................................................................................................................... 175 9.7.3 System Integration .................................................................................................................................. 175 9.7.4 Lighting ........................................................................................................................................................ 175 9.8 9.8.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 175 General Recommendations ..................................................................................................................... 175 9.8.2 Computer Rooms .................................................................................................................................... 176 9.8.3 Support Areas .......................................................................................................................................... 176 9.8.4 9.9 Bonding, Grounding, Lightning Protection, and Surge Suppression ..................................................... 177 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 177 9.9.1 General Recommendations ..................................................................................................................... 181 9.9.2 Lightning Protection ................................................................................................................................ 182 9.9.3 9.9.4 Surge Suppression/Surge Protective Devices (SPDs) ............................................................................. 183 Telecommunications Surge Protection .................................................................................................... 184 9.9.5 Building Ground (Electrode) Ring .......................................................................................................... 185 9.9.6 Supplementary Bonding and Grounding ................................................................................................. 186 9.9.7 9.9.8 Information Technology Equipment Interconnections ............................................................................ 191 9.9.9 Power System Bonding and Grounding .................................................................................................. 194 9.10 Labeling and Signage .................................................................................................................................. 200 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 200 9.10.1 9.10.2 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................... 200 9.10.3 Recommendations ................................................................................................................................... 200 9.11 Testing and Quality Assurance .................................................................................................................. 201 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................... 201 9.11.1 9.11.2 Recommendations ................................................................................................................................... 201 9.12 Ongoing Operations .................................................................................................................................... 202 9.12.1 Recommendations ................................................................................................................................... 202 9.13 Electrical Systems Matrix .......................................................................................................................... 202 vii ANSI/BICSI 002-2014 10 Mechanical .................................................................................................................. 221 10.1 Codes, References, and Terminology ........................................................................................................ 221 Code Compliance and Coordination ....................................................................................................... 221 10.1.1 References ............................................................................................................................................... 221 10.1.2 10.1.3 Terminology Differences Between Codes and Telecommunications Standards ..................................... 221 10.2 Typical Heat Rejection and Computer Room Cooling Technologies ..................................................... 221 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 221 10.2.1 Chiller Based Systems ............................................................................................................................ 221 10.2.2 10.2.3 Direct Expansion Cooling Systems ......................................................................................................... 229 10.2.4 Dual Coil Cooling Solution ..................................................................................................................... 232 10.3 Mechanical Class Ratings .......................................................................................................................... 232 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 232 10.3.1 10.3.2 Class F0 and F1 Description ................................................................................................................... 232 Class F2 Description ............................................................................................................................... 234 10.3.3 Class F3 Description ............................................................................................................................... 236 10.3.4 Class F4 Description ............................................................................................................................... 239 10.3.5 10.3.6 Chiller Piping and Valve Redundancy .................................................................................................... 242 10.4 Environmental Conditions ......................................................................................................................... 243 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 243 10.4.1 Normal Operation Versus Loss of Environmental Control ..................................................................... 243 10.4.2 Environmental Class Definitions ............................................................................................................ 243 10.4.3 10.4.4 Air Conditioning ..................................................................................................................................... 245 Ventilation (Outside Air) ........................................................................................................................ 246 10.4.5 Airborne Contaminants (Gases and Particles)......................................................................................... 247 10.4.6 Environmental Limits ............................................................................................................................. 247 10.4.7 10.4.8 Humidity Control .................................................................................................................................... 248 10.4.9 Temperature And Humidity Control—Tape Media ................................................................................ 248 10.4.10 Maximum Dew Point .............................................................................................................................. 248 10.4.11 Altitude ................................................................................................................................................... 248 10.4.12 Noise Levels ............................................................................................................................................ 248 10.4.13 Leak Detection ........................................................................................................................................ 248 10.5 Thermal Management ................................................................................................................................ 249 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 249 10.5.1 Use Of Operati...

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